Archive for September, 2006


September 30, 2006


“Be the change you want to see in the world!” Mahatma Gandhi
“Mai intai te ignora;apoi rad de tine;dupa aceea lupta cu tine;la sfarsit invingi” FIRST THEY IGNORE YOU;THEN THEY LAUGH AT YOU;THEN THEY FIGHT YOU;THEN YOU WIN”[/color]

Mai jos e raspunsul meu postat pe toate forumurile:
Stimate D-le Lucian Mares

Albert Einstein a spus ca
“OZN-urile exista iar cei ce le poseda sunt niste umani plecati de pe Terra in urma cu 10.000 de ani” (Albert Einstein said that “the flying saucers are piloted by a people that left the Earth 10 thousand years before and that they come back in pilgrimage to the sources”.


“Exita doua feluri de ati trai viata.Unul e sa crezi ca nimic nu e miraculos.Celalalt e sa crezi ca totul e un miracol”;”There are only two ways to live your life. One is as though nothing is a miracle. The other is as though everything is a miracle. ” Albert Einstein

Afirmatia lui Albert Einstein nu a fost considerata nicaieri o porcarie(asa cum va permiteti s-o faceti dumneavoastra ,fiindca ati trait intr-o tara ca Romania unde mentalitatea totalitara si intoleranta nu o sa dispara peste noapte [iar oamenii continua sa taca si sa se teama sa-si afirme opiniile]
“Priviti adanc in propria dvs. fiinta si apoi veti intelege totul mai bine”
“Look deep into your own nature, and then you will understand everything better.”( Albert Einstein).
“Vizitele extraterestre sunt o realitate”[“Extraterrestrial visitation is a reality”,spunea Hermann Oberth]

Puteti sa aflati mai jos opiniile despre OZN ale lui Hermann Oberth , romanul expert in rachete, considerat alaturi de Robert Goddard and Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, unul din cei trei care au deschis era spatiala[HERMANN OBERTH, Romanian and German rocket expert considered (with Robert Goddard and Konstantin Tsiolkovsky) one of the three fathers of the space age]. “Vizitele extraterestre sunt o realitate”[“Extraterrestrial visitation is a reality.”]

In 1955, Dr. Werner von Braun invited him to the U.S. where he worked on rockets with the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and later NASA. Oberth’s active interest in UFOs began in 1954:

“Teza mea este ca farfuriile zburatoare sunt reale si ele sunt nave spatiale dintr-un alt sistem solar.Cred ca e posibil ca ele sa fie pilotate de obsevatori inteligenti, care apartin unei rase care cerceteaza de secole sistemul nostru solar.Cred ca e posibil ca ei sa fie trimisi pt. a duce la indeplinire misiuni de investigare sistematice de larga amploare,mai intai ale oamenilor,animalelor si plantelor,iar mai recent ale centrelor atomice,militare si de productie a armamentului”;”It is my thesis that flying saucers are real and that they are space ships from another solar system. I think that they possibly are manned by intelligent observers who are members of a race that may have been investigating our earth for centuries. I think that they possibly have been sent out to conduct systematic, long-range investigations, first of men, animals, vegetation, and more recently of atomic centers, armaments and centers of armament production.”

(Oberth H., “Flying Saucers Come From A Distant World,” The American Weekly, October 24, 1954.)
Puteti sa aflati de pe internet ce spun despre OZN-uri oamenii de stiinta,inginerii,medici,presedintii de state, oficialitati militare si autoritati ale Vaticanului pe:

DR. CARL SAGAN, Professor of Astronomy and Space Sciences at Cornell University: “Acum e cat se poate de clar ca Terra nu e singura planeta locuita..It now seems quite clear that Earth is not the only inhabited planet. There is evidence that the bulk of the stars in the sky have planetary systems. Recent research concerning the origin of life on Earth suggests that the physical and chemical processes leading to the origin of life occur rapidly in the early history of the majority of planets.
“The selective value of intelligence and technical civilization is obvious, and it seems likely that a large number of planets within our Milky Way galaxy – perhaps as many as a million – are inhabited by technical civilizations in advance of our own. Interstellar space flight is far beyond our present technical capabilities, but there seems to be no fundamental physical objections to preclude, from our own vantage point, the possibility of its development by other civilizations.”

(Sagan, Carl, “Unidentified Flying Objects,” The Encyclopedia Americana, 1963.)

2.CUTREMURUL DECLANSAT DE EXPLOZIILE DE LA ROSIA MONTANA IN ZIUA DE 19.09.2006 ESTE DEJA PE SITUL UNIUNII EUROPENE[daca era firesc , cum afirmati aparea dupa exploziile din zona]
Acum imi cereti adresa sitului Uniunii Europene(pe care o puteati gasi in articol daca l-ati fi citit , inainte de a va lasa orbit de dogmele pe care le aparati,sa trimiteti mesaje care sunt sub demnitatea unei fiinte care respecta alte opinii).In ultimul e-mail mai sustineti ca seismele sunt intamplatoare,aleatoare si ca statistic e posibil oricand sa fie seisme. Einstein zicea ca:”Dumnezeu nu se joaca cu zaruri”[Albert Einstein said:”God doesn’t play with dices”or “I do not think that God threw dices for his creations”].

Poate revedeti pagina de mai jos:

3.Daca va deranjeaza ca oamenii au aflat ca la exploatarea de la Rosia Montana s-au aruncat in atmosfera , prin explozii gigantice, uriase cantitati de praf radioactiv nu va faceti probleme fiindca stie toata Europa ,ca a crescut radioactivitatea in urma exploziilor de la ROSIA MONTANA(vedeti mai jos compozitia rocilor de la Rosia Montana si Bucium, din care se extrage aurul)
Stephanie Roth [–?cq=1]
EuroGold’s project to develop Europe’s biggest open-cast mine in Romania’s Apuseni region is taking hair-raising proportions.
Cyanide extracts gold from ore by making it soluble. But it also makes soluble the other metals in the ore.” Zeno counts, one finger after other: “
Arsenic, lead, uranium, mercury, iron, nickel, cadmium
..” Zeno shakes his head and looks out onto the road: “It’s mad. Because there are countries like the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Greece and Turkey that have either outlawed the use of cyanide or are advocating to outlaw its use. and what’s happening here, in the very country where the Baia Mare disaster happened? Companies employing the cyanide leaching method get the red carpet treatment.” [vedeti in rosu metalele grele din roca aruncata in aer care vor fi dizolvate prin utilizarea cianurilor]

4.PROBLEMA CIVILIZATIILOR ANTERIOARE NU MAI POATE FI ASCUNSA;Toate relicvele de la Mohenjo-Daro si Harappa sunt extrem de radioactive iar obiectele din jur sunt vitrificate sau arse,ca si cum ar fi fost expuse la o caldura intensa ;
Existenta unei mase granitice de mare densitate sub Rosia Montana si Bucium, unde sunt sedimente din Cretacic (exact zonele concesionate) e rocunoscuta in studiile geofizice preliminare :
“Geophysical interpretation based on an aeromagnetic survey conducted by the Romanian State Exploration Company suggests that a major granitic pluton lies beneath both Bucium and Rosia Montana”
The Bucium area is hosted within a sequence of Cretaceous sediments,
The Bucium exploration concession is located immediately to the south of Rosia Montana and covers an area of approximately 32.1 square kilometres”.
Concession Size:
Rosia Montana :23.8 square kilometres
Bucium :32.1 square kilometres.
5.Criticati referirea la filmul Planeta Maimutelor ,ca fiind un argument SF fara valoare.In ultimul mesaj scrieti ca argumentele sprijinte se SF nu au valoare.Daca nu stiti aflati acum .Autoritatile din SUA nu au autorizat publicarea unei carti care facea dezvaluiri zguduitoare decat atunci cand autorul a declarat-o SF( ma refer la cartea “The Catchers of Heaven”,a Dr. Michael Wolf).Ce ziceti de alt SF:1984 a lui George Orwell? Nineteen Eighty-Four -George Orwell’s science-fiction novel was adapted for television by Nigel Kneale, one of the most successful television scriptwriters of the era. The previous year he had created the legendary Professor Bernard Quatermass for the popular science-fiction serial The Quatermass Experiment
Planeta Maimutelor face parte din aceasta categorie de mesaje impachetate in SF.Desigur nu ati citit nimic despre descoperirile in domeniul comportamentului realizate de Desmond Morris , autorul bestseller-ului “Maimuta goala“(The Naked Ape) si al altei carti celebre “Gradina Zoologica umana“(“The Human Zoo”) ( ).Descoperirile urmelor civilizatiilor anterioare similare celor din nordul Indiei au inspirat cartea lui Pierre Boule “Planeta Maimutelor“(publicata in 1963 in lb.franceza sub titlul” La planète des singes” si in lb.engleza:“Planet of the Apes’ ) dupa care a fost realizata prima varianta a filmului cu acelasi nume din 1968 [in care a jucat Charlton Heston.Adevarul e asa de greu de crezut incat a fost considerat un SF.Apropos, celebra carte “The Bridge Over the River Kwai” dupa care s-a turnat filmul atat de elogiat,este tot a lui Pierre Boule;
Filmul a satirizat antropocentrismul actualei civilizatii terestre(care se crede singura specie inteligenta de pe Terra si din Univers) si a reluat ideea creatorului primei bombe atomice[J. Robert Oppenheimer] ca actuala civilizatie nu a facut decat sa redescopere “focul zeilor” descris in epopea indiana Mahabharata si atestat de descoperirea relicvelor radioactive de la Harappa si Mohenjo Daro.
J Robert Oppenheimer, the leader of the American team that developed the ultimate ‘weapon of mass destruction’ during the Second World War, was moved to quote Krishna’s words from the famous Bhagavad Gita, which is one small section of the Mahabharata (‘I am become death, the destroyer of worlds’) as he watched, on 16 July 1945) the awesome force of the first nuclear explosion devised by man/ Apropo de sincronicitate..Cand a vazut sfera de foc a primei explozii atomice Oppenheimer si-a amintit un pasaj din vechiul scriere sacra a Indiei Bhagavad Gita(o parte din Mahabharata): “Am devenit moartea,distrugatorul lumilor”…


(in articolul pe care-l defaimati aveti suficiente link-uri catre obiecte stranii care nu ar trebui sa existe, ce au fost descoperite in diferite mine de pe Terra);
6.Daca doriti sa reduceti impactul exploatarii de la Rosia Montana doar la contaminarea cu cianuri este din cauza ca e posibil sa fiti competent profesional doar in chimie si sa nu vedeti implicatiile uriase la care se face referire in articol(cititi “Zeita de oricalc” si “Lumi Galactice” ale pilotului militar roman Doru Davidovici)
7.E posibil insa sa ma insel fiindca aveti si unele talente de manipulator atunci cand:
-minimalizati implicatiile anuntate in articol folosidu-va de etichetarea ca SF a intregului articol si recomandati scrierea unei carti pe aceasta tema;
-lansati ipoteza ca informarea oamenilor cu privire la alte implicatii ale exploatarii de la Rosia Montana ar fi o diversiune menita sa discrediteze pe cei ce lupta contra acestei exploatari , care vor fi etichetati drept OZN-isti; articolul ofera munitie celor care doresc ca exploatarea de la Rosia Montana sa fie supravegheata daca nu poate fi oprita din cauza intereselor Euro Gold(aurul dacic a mai intarziat prabusirea unui imperiu-ma refer la cel Roman)
Asa de bine au luptat pana acum atat de multi oameni de buna credinta ca azi se vede din spatiul cosmic craterul urias de la Rosia Montana (pe Google satellite map);
Aveti grija ca intre grupurile care sustin ca lupta contra exploatarii de la RM sunt unele care mimeaza opozitia iar altele cumparate(“dezbina si stapaneste”) si acum isi fac CV-uri pt a primi “burse” de la cei ce doresc astfel sa le inchida gura;

8.DACA CINEVA ARE ALTE OPINII NU INSEAMNA CA POATE SA JIGNEASCA PE PE CEI CE SUSTIN ALTE PUNCTE DE VEDERE;RESPECTATI DACA DORITI SA FITI RESPECTAT:”Cel diferit de mine nu ma lezeaza ci ma imbogateste;Celui qui diffère de moi,loin de me léser,m’enrichit;He who is different from me does not impoverish me-he enriches me:(Exupéry)

9.primesc alte sugestii si opinii pe


Tea and ancient philosophy/Ceaiul si filosofiile antice

September 24, 2006

Ceaiul si filosofia antica/Tea and ancient philosophy

tea garden2

Traducerea de mai jos in limba romana este o incercare de modificare si de corectare a erorilor  (initiale si adaugate la articolul tradus din lb. engleza care e redat mai jos  dupa cel in lb.engleza) din articolul  de pe situl:


The Start of Tea as a Philosophical Concept

tea garden

In China, Tea was first introduced to common people as a medicine, and then a food spices, and later a new material for drinking. Tea was later introduced to royal family, and then the buddhist monasteries.

When tea entered into common people’s daily life, it became a part of Chinese traditional Daoism; when tea entered into royal family’s life, the royal family branded it with Confucianism; when tea entered into the buddhist circle to help buddhist monks meditate, buddhists dissolved Buddhism into tea pots.

So, for Chinese, tea is not just tea, it is a combination of Chinese Daoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism.

Tea and Taoism

Tao is the philosophy and religion that originally rooted from ancient China. In Chinese, Tao literally means path or way, and it can extent its meanings as of principle and moral. Taoism means the essence of the universe. It is such a serious concept that Chinese people usually do not relate Tao with common things. Japan later adopted the word of Tao(the same characte rendered as:Do) and refered it to something has a form/custom and some skill sets, such as Ju Do, Flower Do, and Cha Do. So the Japanese Do is very different from Chinese Tao in core.

ImageLao Zi (604-531 B.C.) the greatest chinese  philosopher and his student Zhuang Zi, who created and developed the Chinese religion and philosophy of taoism, empathized the true essence of the universe, and the united one of human beings and the natural world. Taoism asserts Tao is the combination of truth, kindness, and beauty of the universe; material and human spirit can not be separated (material is in the spirit; spirit is in the material). It is the Chinese version of dialectics.

It was Taoism’s concept of Calm and Inertia nurtured the Chinese lifestyle to enjoy tasting tea and to dissolve human’s body into the eternal universe. Taoism helped the creation and development of Tea Arts, and helped people to pay attention to tea as a way of changing and enhancing lifestyle.

Tea and Confucianism

ImageConfucius(551?-479? B.C.), the greatest moralist in ancient China, and his student, Meng Zi established Confucianism. It emphasizes the formality and ceremony between almost everything, and re-disciplined or redefined the relationship between people by the behavior they must conduct.

The principles of Confucianism include Mercy, Commitment, Etiquette, and Wisdom, and especially the “Gold Middle Way”. Confucius suggested Harmony and Balance. Its doctrines soon were found so useful for almost every Chinese Empreor and his/her royal family to control the rest of the country.

Its complex structure of etiquette also influenced the creation of the tea etiquette and tea ceremony in China. From confucius perspective, tea means harmony, calm, etiquette, and optimizm

Tea and Buddhism

Buddhism was founded in 535 B.C. by Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 B.C.) in Lumbini of Northern India, now inside Nepal. Budda means one who has awakened. Buddhism’s Mahayana tradition entered into China as a foreign religion during Han Dynasty(206 B.C.- 220 A.D.). It tried to explain the essence of human life. Buddhism asserts that human life is the process of seeking for suffering, and so that human beings need to face the wall to meditate. If suffering is an inevitable process for the whole life, then suffering is no longer suffering.

In buddhist temple, monks have strict rules of their behavior. They can not eat meat, fish, or any products from animals; they can not drink alcohol; vegetables are the sole resource for their daily nutrition besides rice and wheat products. However, tea has been an exception since drinking tea does not violate any monastery rules – tea in essence is vegetable. Moreover, drinking tea can also help monks to meditate by keeping them awake.

Tea’s bitter taste can refer to buddhist suffering; the clean and clear tea liquid can refer to the monastery rule of self-discipline, and calm. In Chinese history, many famous buddhist temples had planted and nurtured tea trees with great types and quality.

The Way of Tea(Chado) in Zen Buddhism

The custom of drinking tea was prevalent in China before the time of Christ.
Tea was first imported from China as a beverage and over the course of several hundred
years was developed into the art of Chanoyu from which developed Chado.
The study of tea is effective in teaching discipline and instilling respect for others.

The Japanese created a unique way of life by elevating the mundane practice of drinking tea to a spiritual discipline. Especially after the contact with Zen, The Way of Tea was strengthened because the spirit of Tea and Zen became to be seen as one and the same. Peace, respect, purity, and tranquility are the four precepts of Chanoyu.

Chanoyu, over the centuries, has become deeply rooted in the hearts and customs of the Japanese people and has had a great influence on Japanese culture .

TheThe Book of Tea  is modern classic invites the reader to discover a unique tradition of Tea Ceremony that has come to symbolize wisdom, beauty, and the elegant simplicity of Asian culture. The author celebrates the Way of Tea from its ancient origins in Chinese Taoism to its culmination in the Zen discipline known as the Japanese tea ceremony—an enchanting practice bringing together such arts as architecture, pottery, and flower arranging to create an experience that delights the senses, calms the mind, and refreshes the spirit. Combining the rich aesthetic of Asian culture through the history, philosophy, and practice of tea, The Book of Tea has been enjoyed by hundreds of thousands of readers since it was first published in 1906.

The Japanese Tea Ceremony(Chaji)


Preparing for the Ceremony
ImageChaji is a full tea presentation with a meal. As in virtually every tea ceremony, the host may spend days going over minutiae to insure that this ceremony will be perfect. Through tea, recognition is given that every human encounter is a singular occasion which can, and will, never recur again exactly. Thus every aspect of tea must be savored for what it gives the participants.
ImageThe ceremony takes place in a room designed and designated for tea. It is called the chashitsu. Usually this room is within the tea house, located away from the residence, in the garden.
ImageThe guests (four is the preferred number) are shown into the machiai (waiting room). Here, the hanto (assistant to the host) offers them sayu (the hot water which will be used to make tea). While here, the guests choose one of their group to act as the main guest. The hanto then leads the guests, main guest directly behind, to a water sprinkled garden devoid of flowers. It is called roji (dew ground). Here the guests rid themselves of the dust of the world. They then seat themselves on the koshikake machiai (waiting bench), anticipating the approach of the host who has the official title teishu (house master).

Stone basin, or nagare tsukubai. ImageJust before receiving the guests, the teishu fills the tsukubai (stone basin), which is set among low stones with fresh water. Taking a ladle of water the teishu purifies his hands and mouth then proceeds through the chumon (middle gate) to welcome his guests with a bow. No words are spoken. The teishu leads the hanto, the main guest and the others (in that order) through the chumon which symbolizes door between the coarse physical world and the spiritual world of tea.
ImageThe guests and hanto purify themselves at the tsukubai and enter the teahouse. The sliding door is only thirty six inches high. Thus all who enter must bow their heads and crouch. This door points to the reality that all are equal in tea, irrespective of status or social position. The last person in latches the door.

Inside the Teahouse
ImageThe room is devoid of any decoration except for an alcove called a tokonoma. Hanging in the alcove is a kakemono (scroll painting), carefully selected by the host, which reveals the theme of the ceremony. The Buddhist scripture on the scroll is by a master and is called bokuseki (ink traces). Each guest admires the scroll in turn, then examines the kama (kettle) and hearth (furo for the portable type and ro for the type set into the floor in winter to provide warmth), which were laid just before they were greeted by the host. They then are seated according to their respective positions in the ceremony.
ImageThe host seats himself and greetings are exchanged, first between the host and principle guest, then the host and other guests. A charcoal fire is then built if it is ro season and after the meal if it is furo season. In ro season kneaded incense is put in the fire and sandalwood incense in the furo season.

The Meal
ImageEach guest is served a meal called chakaiseki. Served on a tray with fresh cedar chopsticks, the meal consists of three courses. On the tray is cooked white rice in a ceramic bowl which will be eaten with other dishes, miso soup which is served in covered lacquer bowls and raw fish, plain or pickled, or pickled vegetables in a ceramic dish.
ImageSake is served. The first course is called hashiarai (rinsing the chopsticks). Nimono (foods simmered in broth) in separate covered lacquer dishes. Yakimono (grilled foods) are served in individual portions on ceramic plates. Additional rice and soup is offered each guest. At this course the host may eat, if he chooses. The palate is then cleared with kosuimono, a simple clear broth served in covered lacquer bowls.
ImageThe next course derives its name from the Shinto reverence of nature. It is called hassun which is also the name for the simple wooden tray that is used to serve this course. This course consists of uminomono and yamanomono (seafood and mountain food respectively) which signify the abundance of the sea and land. The host eats during this course, and is served sake by each guest. The position of server is considered a higher position and, to insure equality of all in the tea room, each acts as host if only momentarily.
ImageKonomono (fragrant things) are served in small ceramic bowls, and browned rice is served in salted water in a lacquer pitcher, representing the last of the rice. Each guest cleans the utensils they have used with soft paper which they bring. A omogashi (principal sweet) is served to conclude the meal. The host then invites his guests to retire to the garden or waiting room while he prepares for tea.
ImageOnce the guests have departed, the host removes the scroll and replaces it with flowers. The room is swept and the utensils for preparing koi cha are arranged. Over thirteen individual items are used. Each is costly and considered an art object.

master Aso Tea caddy (chaire) with silk sack (shifuku).

The Spiritual World of Tea
ImageIn tea ceremony, water represents yin and fire in the hearth yang. The water is held in a jar called the mizusashi. This stoneware jar contains fresh water symbolizing purity, and is touched only by the host.
Matcha is kept in a small ceramic container called a chaire which is in turn covered in a shifuku (fine silk pouch) which is set in front of the mizusashi. The occasion will dictate the type of tana (stand) used to display the chosen utensils.
ImageIf tea is served during the day a gong is sounded, in evening a bell. Usually struck or rung five to seven times, it summons the guests back to the tea house. They purify hands and mouth once again and re-enter as before. They admire the flowers, kettle and hearth and seat themselves.
Tea bowl (chawan) and water container (mizusashi). ImageThe host enters with the
chawan (tea bowl) which holds the chasen (tea whisk), chakin (the tea cloth) which is a bleached white linen cloth used to dry the bowl, and the chashaku (tea scoop), a slender bamboo scoop used to dispense the matcha, which rests across it. These are arranged next to the water jar which represents the sun (symbolic of yang); the bowl is the moon (yin). Retiring to the preparation room, the host returns with the kensui (waste water bowl), the hishaku (bamboo water ladle) and futaoki (a green bamboo rest for the kettle lid). He then closes the door to the preparation room.
ImageUsing a fukusa (fine silk cloth), which represents the spirit of the host, the host purifies the tea container and scoop. Deep significance is found in the host’s careful inspection, folding and handling of the fukusa, for his level of concentration and state of meditation are being intensified. Hot water is ladled into the tea bowl, the whisk is rinsed, the tea bowl is emptied and wiped with the chakin.
ImageLifting the tea scoop and tea container, the host places three scoops of tea per guest into the tea bowl. Hot water is ladled from the kettle into the teabowl in a quantity sufficient to create a thin paste with the whisk. Additional water is then added to so the paste can be whisked into a thick liquid consistent with pea soup. Unused water in the ladle is returned to the kettle. Woman conducting Japanese tea ceremony © Tony Aqualino
ImageThe host passes the tea bowl to the main guest who bows in accepting it. The bowl is raised and rotate in the hand to be admired. The guest then drinks some of the tea, wipes the rim of the bowl, and passes the bowl to the next guest who does the same as the main guest.
ImageWhen the guests have all tasted the tea the bowl is returned to the host who rinses it. The whisk is rinsed and the tea scoop and the tea container cleaned.
ImageThe scoop and tea container are offered to the guests for examination. A discussion of the objects, presentation and other appropriate topics takes place.

Preparing for Departure
ImageThe fire is then rebuilt for usa cha (thin tea). This tea will rinse the palate and symbolically prepares the guests for leaving the spiritual world of tea and re-entering the physical world. Smoking articles are offered, but rarely does smoking take place in a tearoom. This is but a sign for relaxation.
ImageZabuton (cushions) and teaburi (hand warmers) are offered. To compliment usa cha, higashi (dry sweets) are served. Usa cha and koi cha are made in the same manner, except that less tea powder of a lesser quality is used, and it is dispensed from a date-shaped wooden container called
natsume. The tea bowl is more decorative in style; and guests are individually served a bowl of this forthy brew.
ImageAt the conclusion, the guests express their appreciation for the tea and admiration for the art of the host. They leave as the host watches from the door of the teahouse.

tea instruments


Traducerea de mai jos in limba romana este o incercare de modificare si de corectare a erorilor  (initiale si adaugate la articolul tradus din lb. engleza care e redat mai jos  dupa cel in lb.engleza) din articolul  de pe situl:

Calea Ceaiului

Ceaiul nu e un obiect ,ci o traditie a carei origine a fost in mare parte uitata,o relicva care si-a pierdut adevaratele radacini spirituale transformandu-se intr-o marfa,intr-un produs de consum. Unii considera ca ceaiul reprezinta un stil de viata,iar altii un proces social de invatare, de plantare si  de utilizare a ceaiului.Intelegerea culturii si a ritualurilor ceaiului nu e posibila daca se ignora in continuare radacinile spirituale si filosofice ale acestei traditii. In China si, in general, in Asia, ceaiul implica in mod frecvent Calea antica, de care ne vom ocupa  in momentul de fata.


In China,ceaiul a fost introdus pentru prima data ca remediu contra somnolentei de catre calugarii taoisti care petreceau o mare parte din timp in stare de veghere(meditatie constienta)pentru a realiza trezirea sau desteptarea(starea de “boddhi”)  devenind o partea integranta a filosofiei Taoiste.Mai tarziu, utilizarea ceaiului s-a raspandit in viata laica incepand cu familiile regale si casele nobiliare. Dupa ce s-a raspandit ca planta de leac si ca medicament,ceaiul a ajuns apoi o materie prima pentru prepararea bauturilor.Succesul actualelor bauturi racoritoare(coca-cola,pepsi -cola,ice tea) nu e decat rezultatul imitarii industriale si chimice a ceaiului traditional) fara se obtine efectele curative ale acestuia ( dupa exploziile nucleare de la Hirosima si Nagasaki cercetatorii japonezii au observat ca ceaiul grabeste eliminarea Strontiului radioactiv din organism si elimina radicalii liberi-efect antioxidant). Atunci cand ceaiul a patruns si in familiile obisnuite chineze, el a devenit o traditie care si-a pierdut semnificatia originara fiind asimilat cand cu Confucianismul, cand cu buddhismul (atunci cand si calugarii buddhisti l-au adoptat, Buddhismul a circulat fara probleme odata cu  noua licoare). Asa ca, pentru chinezi, ceaiul nu este doar ceai, ci o combinatie intre buddhism, confucianism si taoism.Acest articol isi propune redescoperirea adevaratelor semnificatii ale caii ceaiului 


Taoismul reprezinta filosofia si religia provenita din vechea China. Literar, in limba chineza Tao inseamna Cale sau drum,Izvorul universului manifestat.In conceptia taoista omul cerul si pamantul sunt legate prin fire invizibile(vedeti cap.25 din Tao Te Ching).Ulterior confucianismul a extins Tao la morala si principii. Practic, Tao reprezinta insasi esenta universului, un concept atat de serios incat chinezii nu il asociaza niciodata cu lucrurile obisnuite. Japonezii au adoptat ceva mai tarziu termenul, folosindu-l pentru a determina ceva care are anumite cunostinte intr-un anumit domeniu, apropiate de perfectiune.
Lao Zi (604-531 i.e.n.) cal mai mare filosof al Chinei antice si studentul sau, Zhuang Zi, sunt cei care au aratat ca iubirea fata de semeni si celelalte norme morale deriva din cunoasterea Adevarului ca realitatea este una singura -oglindita la nesfarsit in fiecare din miliardele de lucruri manifestate.Pt. aceasta e necesara reintoarcerea la origine- uniunea spirituala dintre om si izvorul universului. Taoismul mai spune ca materia si spiritul uman nu au cum sa fie separate, aceasta fiind dialectica chineza: materia este spirit si spiritul este materie.
Unii autori cred ca notiunile de calm si  de armonie i-au impins pe chinezi catre ceai si ca tot Taoismul a fost cel care i-a ajutat pe oameni sa dezvolte ceremoniile ceaiului si sa dea mare atentie dezvoltarii acestuia.


Confucius (551-479 i.e.n.), marele creator de  ideologiei imperiale al Chinei antice, si studentul sau, Meng Zi, sunt cei care au pus bazele confucianismului.Confucius a fost pe placul liderilor de pretutindeni care-l elogiaza fara sa inteleaga ca filosofia lui molralizatoare a fost cauza izolarii si a inghetarii in tipar a Chinei.Nu poti fi pe placul liderilor daca nu sustii precum Confucius inghetarea vesnica a actualelor ierarhii paternaliste,supunerea,loialitatea,increderea oarba in autoritati si credinta in recompense intr-o viata viitoare(din moment ce in asta ai numai frustrari) .Confucius  a evidentiat formalitatile si ceremoniile dintre absolut orice, redefinind si redisciplinand relatiile dintre oameni si comportamentele dupa care acestia trebuie sa se lase condusi.
Principiile morale ale confucianismului includ fidelitatea fata de autoritati(imparat,parinti,barbat) devotamentul, dreptatea, eticheta si intelepciunea, drept “calea  de mijloc”. Confucius a sugerat, la vremea sa, si balanta si armonia, doctrina sa fiind considerata utila de catre viitorii imparati chinezi, ca si de catre fiecare familie care ajungea sa conduca o parte din tara. Structura complexa a etichetei confucianiste a influentat artificializat si rigidizat ceremonialul firesc al ceaiului, din perspectiva confucianista, ceaiul insemnand norme,reguli  si eticheta.


Buddhismul a fost fondat in anul 535 i.e.n. de Siddharta Gautama (563-483 i.e.n.) in nordul Indiei, la Lumbini, acum un oras care apartine Nepalului. Buddha inseamna, traditional, “cel care s-a trezit”. Mahayana, traditie budista, a intrat in China ca o religie straina, pe timpul dinastiei Han (206-220 e.n), incercand sa explice esenta vietii umane. Buddhismul presupune ca viata umana este procesul de cautare si suferinta, iar fiintele umane trebuie sa infrunte zidul din fata lor si sa mediteze. Daca suferinta este un proces inevitabil pentru intreaga viata, atunci buddhismul concluzioneaza ca suferinta nu mai este, de fapt, suferinta.
In templele budiste, calugarii au reguli stricte de comportament. Ei nu au voie sa manance carne, fie ea si de peste, sau orice alt produs provenit de la animale. De asemenea, nu se pot atinge de alcool, vegetalele fiind singura lor sursa de hrana zilnica. Ceaiul a fost o exceptie, din moment ce consumul acestuia nu incalca nici una din regulile existente, ceaiul fiind un produs vegetal, tocmai de aceea calugarii apreciindu-l foarte mult pentru faptul ca acesta ii ajuta sa mediteze si sa stea treji.
Gustul amar al ceaiului a adus, probabil, in mintea budistilor, conceptul de suferinta, iar lichidul calm si clar probabil ca simboliza cumva regulile stricte ale manastirilor. Tocmai de aceea, majoritatea templelor budiste aveau propriile plantatii de ceai, din care se alimentau cu cantitatile necesare.


September 12, 2006


The most widely read Chinese book in the world(The Tao, the Way, or The Tao Te Ching) has been 
translated into more languages than any other book except the Bible. The Tao Te Ching is the centerpiece 
of all Chinese religion and thought, and the Tao Te Ching is the fundamental 
text of Taoism. It's also the first most translated book in the world 
[if we look at the number of translation variants of Tao Te Ching] but is the third 
most published book in the world, the first being the Bible, the second the Bhagavad Gita. 
The world's most translated book, after the Bible is also the most censured 
and distorted to avoid hurting the dogmas of institutionalised religions in the Occident

Mystic Union in Tao Te Ching cpt.56

" Cartea  tradusa in cele mai multe variante si una dintre cele mai indragite din lume 
[Tao Te Ching(Dao De Jing)a lui Lao Tzu ] unica prin luciditatea si conciziunea sa, 
care a ramas actuala si este venerata dincolo de barierele culturale pentru intelepciunea 
sa fara varsta".(TIMES) este cenzurata si deformata pt. a nu leza dogmele religiilor 
 Un exemplu de cenzura si deformare il intalnim in capitolul 56,unde se afla cel mai 
celebru citat din Lao tzu:"Cel ce stie nu vorbeste;cel ce vorbeste nu stie"



Beck:Those who know do not speak. Those who speak do not know.

Blackney:Those who know do not talk And talkers do not know.

Bynner:Those who know do not tell, Those who tell do not know.

Byrn:Those who know do not talk. Those who talk do not know.

Chan:He who knows does not speak. He who speaks does not know.

Cleary:Those who know do not say; those who say do not know.

Crowley:Who knows the Dao keeps silence. He who babbles knows it not.

Hansen:He who speaks (much, shows thereby that he) does not know (the Principle).

LaFargue:Those who understand are not talkers talkers don’t understand.

Legge:He who knows (the Tao) does not (care to) speak (about it); he who is (ever ready to) speak about it does not know it.

Lindauer:Those who know are without words Those with words are without knowing.

LinYutan:He who knows does not speak; He who speaks does not know.

Mabry:Those who know, do not speak. Those who speak, do not know.

McDonald:He who knows doesn’t speak (artfully). He who speaks hardly knows.

Peter A. Merel:Who understands does not preach; Who preaches does not understand.

Mitchell:Those who know don’t talk. Those who talk don’t know.

Muller:She who knows does not speak. She who speaks does not know.

Red Pine:Those who know don’t talk those who talk don’t know

Ta-Kao:Those who know to act do not speak. Those who speak, do not know to act.

Walker:Those who know don’t talk. Those who talk don’t know.

Wieger:He who knows (the Principle), does not speak.

World:Those who know have no need to speak. Those who speak are searching for peace and harmony.

Wu:He who knows does not speak. He who speaks does not know.

Olivier Nyssen :Celui qui sait ne parle pas,celui qui parle ne sait pas.

Gia Fu Feng&Jane English:Those who know do not speak.Those who speak do not know.
The way to Heaven and Power[Tao Te Ching;Dao De Jing] is a new interpretation of Lao Tzu[Lao Zi] 
using Wang Bi,Mawangdui and Guodian text variants;see  the false translations and interpretations 
of the first two sentences in  chap.56 of Lao Tzu transformed in a motto  by those who did not glorify 
openess but  secrecy,compartmentation and classification of informations: 

“He who knows, does not speak. He who speaks, does not know”.

The most famous quotation of Lao Tzu“He who knows, does not speak. He who speaks, does not know.”[“The one who speak do not know;The one who knows do not speak” Celui qui sait ne parle pas,celui qui parle ne sait pas.]is false;

If you want to discover the real meaning of this chapter dedicated to Mystic Union by Lao Tzu  please replace in the present translation  the verb”to know” with”to be aware”:

 “The one who is aware centered[who is in the place of God (“enlightened vertical communication room “) do not talked;The one who talk is not centered(is placed in the little horizontal communication room of consciousness];

 Our present sinologists translations of Lao Tzu(Lao Zi) 
deals with putting truth under cover, or with the censorship used by key -keepers for classifing 
everything in order to devide, separate and dissolve partership to partition["divide et impera"] .    
 Indeed, gate-keepers trotted out every half-truth or non-truth under the sun to bolster 
their claims that the source of true knowledge is not inside  yourself but outside. 
Partition principle is useful to fight against dissemination of dangerous 
knowledge and technology [nuclear weapons] not to keep people 
in darkness and ignorance.
If saints or spiritual masters were not communicating their teachings because 
"The One Who Knows Does not Talk" why reading and following them? 

Jesus said that the Light must be shown "not concealed..or hidden"
"Woe to you experts in law, because you have taken away the key to knowledge.
You yourselves have not entered the gate, and you have hindered those who 
were entering" [Luke11.52; ] 

"Woe to you teachers of the law and Pharisees, you hypocrites!You shut the
kingdom of heaven gate in men's face. You yourselves do not enter, 
nor will you let those who are trying to enter"[Mattew 23.13]
[see also where to seek the  "God's kingdom": (Luke 17.20-21; Rom.144.17; Vers.23)].


September 10, 2006

Lao Tzu [Lao zi,Lao Tseu,Lao Tse,Lao Tze, Lao Tzi] in limba romana si engleza de Dan Mirahorian

老子 道德經 Lao Tzu ,Tao Te Ching1, MIRAHORIAN

Tao Te Ching[Dao De Jing]

Lao Tzu[Lao Zi]




1.1.İmportanţa acestui text ;

1.2.Punere în gardă şi mod de utilizare ;

1.3.Versiuni ale textului lui Lao Tzu folosite în prezenta traducere








1.1. İmportanta acestui text

După Biblie,cartea lui Lao Tzu[în pinyin :Lao Zi](sec.VI î.e.n.) este cea mai publicată în lume .În ceea ce priveşte numărul variantelor de traducere şi al ediţiilor apărute textul atribuit lui Lao Tzu se află pe primul loc.

Este vorba despre :«Cartea despre Calea spre Cer şi Putere» (în romanizare pinyin : Dào Dé Jīng ; în transliterare anglo-saxonă Wade-Giles : Tao Te Ching ,care este e obicei titlul ediţiilor în l.engleză ale acestei cărţi :; în pre-Wade-Giles, Tao Teh Ching ; în transcripţia francofonă EFEO :Tao Tö King(Tao Te King)

Valoarea acestui text a fost recunoscută în 1993 când cu ocazia descoperirii a textului fundamental al taoismului printre manuscrisele pe fâşii din bambus, într-un mormânt din sec.III-IV î.e.n. situat în localitatea Guodian[GD] 郭店,în presa din întreaga lume a fost comparat acest eveniment cu impactul trezit de descoperirea «Manuscriselor de la Marea Moartă»

İmportanţa descoperirii celei mai vechi variante a textului fundamental al taoismului,atribuit lui Lao Tzu,[în pinyin:Lao Zi](sec.VI î.e.n.), printre manuscrisele pe fâşii din bambus ,găsite în 1993 într-un mormânt din sec.III-IV î.e.n. situat în localitatea Guodian[GD] 郭店, a fost recunoscută în presa din întreaga lume, prin compararea acestui eveniment cu descoperirea «Manuscriselor de la Marea Moartă».

The importance of Lao tzu/Importanţa operei lui Lao Tzu

The Tao Te Ching, “the book of flow and harmony”, is the fundamental text of Taoism. Its origins lost in the revolutions of Chinese history, it is known to pre-date the invention of paper. In fact its form exhibits many of the features of an oral tradition, suggesting it may pre-date writing as well. The unknown author of the Tao Te Ching is popularly known as Lao Tzu, which is both “the old philosopher” and “the old philosophy”. Hence Lao Tzu(Lao Tse) is also a title for the book.Many myths, religions, cults, yogas, and martial disciplines have sprung up around Lao Tzu(Lao Tse). The poem’s parallels with the Bhagavad Gita, its implicit opposition to Confucian thought, its relationship with Chuang Tzu and Sun Tzu, and its distinction from the discipline of Zen are subjects of some controversy.

Joseph Needham in his great Science and Civilization in China does so — to interpret the Tao Te Ching as a treatise of elementary primitive scientific empiricism; certainly it is that. Over and over it says, “learn the way of nature”; “do not try to overcome the forces of nature but use them.” On the other hand, Fr. Leo Weiger, S.J., called the Tao Te Ching a restatement of the philosophy of the Upanishads in Chinese terms. Buddhists, especially Zen Buddhists in Japan and America, have understood and translated the book as a pure statement of Zen doctrine. Even more remarkable, contemporary Chinese, and not all of them Marxists, have interpreted it as an attack on private property and feudal oppression, and as propaganda for communist anarchism. Others have interpreted it as a cryptic work of erotic mysticism and yoga exercises. It is all of these things and more, and not just because of the ambiguity of the ideograms in a highly compressed classical Chinese text; it really is many things to many men — like the Tao itself.

The influence of the Laozi on Chinese culture is both deep and far-reaching. One indication of its enduring appeal and hermeneutical openness is the large number of commentaries devoted to it throughout Chinese history — some seven hundred, according to one count (W. T. Chan 1963, 77). The Laozi has inspired an intellectual movement known as xuanxue, “Learning of the Mysterious (Dao)” — or “Neo-Daoism,” as some scholars prefer, emphasizing its roots in classical Daoism — that dominated the Chinese elite or high culture from the third to the sixth century C.E. Consequently, the Laozi played a significant role in informing not only philosophic thought but also the development of literature, calligraphy, painting, music, and other cultural traditions.

Imperial patronage enhanced the prestige of the Laozi and enlarged its scope of influence. In 731 C.E., the emperor Xuanzong decreed that all officials should keep a copy of the Daodejing at home and placed the classic on the list of texts to be examined for the civil service examinations. In religious Daoism, recitation of the Daodejing is a prescribed devotional practice and figures centrally in ritual performance. The Daodejing has been set to music from an early time. The term “Laozi learning” (Laoxue) has come to designate an important field of study; a recent effort that sketches the major landmarks in this development is Zhongguo Laoxue shi (A History of Laozi Learning in China) (Xiong Tieji, et al. 1995).

The influence of the Laozi extends beyond China, as Daoism reaches across Asia and in the modern period, the Western world. In Hong Kong, Taiwan, and among the Chinese in Southeast Asia, Daoism is a living tradition. Daoist beliefs and practices have contributed also to the formation of Korean and Japanese culture, although here the process of cultural transmission, assimilation, and transformation is highly complex, especially given the close interaction among Daoism, Buddhism, and indigenous traditions such as Shintō (see Fukui, et al. 1983, vol. 3). During the seventh century, the Laozi was translated into Sanskrit; in the eighteenth century a Latin translation was brought to England, after which there has been a steady supply of translations into Western languages, yielding a handsome harvest of some 250 to date (LaFargue and Pas 1998, 277).

Laozi is an “axial” philosopher whose insight helps shape the course of human development, according to Karl Jaspers (1974). Memorable phrases from the Laozi such as “governing a large country is like cooking a small fish” (ch. 60) have found their way into Western political rhetoric. At the popular level, several comic versions of the Laozi reach out to a younger and wider readership (e.g., Tsai Chih Chung, et al. 1995). Some may have come to learn about the Laozi through such best-selling works as The Tao of Physics (Capra 1975) or The Tao of Pooh (Hoff 1982); and there is also A Taoist Cookbook (Saso 1994), which comes with “meditations” from the Daodejing. From nature lovers to management gurus, a growing audience is discovering that the Laozi has something to offer to them. The reception of the Laozi in modern Asia and the West falls outside the scope of this article; nevertheless, it is important to note that the Laozi should be regarded not only as a work of early Chinese philosophy but also in a larger context as a classic of world literature with keen contemporary relevance.

Chinese thinkers who had been influenced by Lao Tzu directly or indirectly are:

Confucius( 552-479 B.C.)—He had visited Lao Tzu three times to inquire about Li(propriety ritual).

C Chuang Tzu(350-265? B.C.)–He worshipped Lao Tzu and is the best known and loved Taoist thinker.

S Sun Tzu(existed in the sixth century B.C.)–The author of the celebrated military strategy book Sun Tzu. He was said to be personally taught by Lao Tzu; their principles on military strategy are in agreement.

H Han Fei Tzu(?-233 B.B.)–An influencial thinker on Legalism(the policy of stric
t adherence to law and order, it advocates severe punishment as a means to sustain peace and order). However, he has written two books interpreting and commenting on Lao Tzu’s book named Lao Tzu
(known as Tao Te Ching later).

Z Zen(Ch’an) BuddhistsThis branch of Buddhism was originated in China. Initially Chinese Buddhist monks derived their theory about meditation from Lao Tzu’s description of it.

Western philosophers who had been deeply impressed by Lao Tzu’s words are:

F FrederickNietzsche-He said Lao Tzu’s book was full with creative ideas, as inexhaustible as water in a well.

Bertrand RussellHe was deeply touched by Lao Tzu’s words about true nobility “[A sage] would help [all creatures] to relish their lives without being possessive. [He] would carry out good deeds withour asserting his achievement.”(2.IV)

K Karl R. Popper(following books are dedicated to the memory of him)He had been interesting in Lao Tzu ever since he was twenty-six. Please go toThe Great Philosopher Karl Popper & Lao Tzu References.

P Paul Carus-He said Lao Tzu was a great philosopher and one of the greatest human beings who had ever trodden earth.

Other Westerners who were impressed by Lao Tzu

S Samuel Johnson(19th century American missionary and theologian in China)–He wrote very perceptive comments on Lao Tzu’s original philosophy:he was among the few who has been touched by Lao Tzu’s deep spiritual and religious sentiments.

S Stainislas Julien(sinologist)–He said Lao Tzu was a great man who had been considerably misunderstood. His translation was perhaps the best one in the 19th Century.

L Leo Toystoy(humanitarianist & novelist)–He compared the immensity of Lao Tzu to Jesus(so did above mentioned Samuel Johnson), and compared the greatness of his only book Tao Te Ching to that of the Holy Bible.

K Karl Jung(psychologist)

N Niels Bohr(quantum physicist)

E Eugene O’Neil(playwright)–He claimed to be an admirer of Lao Tzu’s principles an named his residence after it.

Joseph Needham((microbiologist & sinologist)–He saidDao Teh Ching, which may be regarded as without exception the most prfound and beautiful work in the Chinese language”(Sicence and Civilization in China)

Many Christian priests and missionaries who had once stationed in China–Many of them were amazed to find so many parallel passages between Lao Tzu(aka Tao Te Ching) and The New Testament.


September 10, 2006

Tao Te Ching[Dao De Jing]

Lao Tzu [Lao Zi]




About this translation

“Far more than ‘just another translation’ of the Tao Te Ching, this work is an outstanding contribution to the study of ancient chinese philosophy .Mirahorian’s translation is meticulous in its attention to detail, eloquent in its rendering of archaic Chinese, and eminently scholarly in its copious and illuminating comments and notes.Yet another translation of the Tao Te Ching would seem unnecessary, but this new one has considerably more depth than other recent efforts. It incorporates an audio recording on CD of all 81 chapters of Lao Tzu in chinese language(I have participated to this recording),a full dictionary of all terms in Lao Tzu’s text and the material from newly discovered texts from Guodian and Mawangdui and examines critically both the variant readings of the several source texts and past translations of the often cryptic original. Following each chapter with a detailed analysis, and offering an extensive glossary and bibliography, it discusses authorship, date, and purpose of the Tao Te Ching. The overall thrust is to depict this work as a unified scientific and religious document, a guide to re-integrating the social with the natural that is worthy of modern study. In fact, Mirahorian initially intended to call his book The Way to Inner Heaven and Peace in Classical Taoism. I personally like the book due to the inclusion of many of the Chinese terms, which certainly helps one become familiar with them. Also the detailed commentary on almost every line is indispensible. In 1993, an astonishing discovery was made at a tomb in Guodian in Hubei province (east central China). Written on strips of bamboo that have miraculously survived intact since 300 B.C., the “Guodian Laozi,” is by far the earliest version of the Tao Te Ching ever unearthed. Students of ancient Chinese civilization proclaimed the text a decisive breakthrough in the understanding of this famous text: it provides the most conclusive evidence to date that the text was the work of multiple authors and editors over hundreds of years, rather than the achievement of a single individual writing during the time of Confucius. Dan Mirahorian now presents the first Romanian translation of the “bamboo slip Laozi.” Differing substantially from other versions we have of the text, the Guodian Laozi provides us with clues on how and when the text came into being. As Mirahorian ´s translation shows, many chapters are missing in this form of the text, and some chapters remain incomplete. All of this seems to suggest that the Tao Te Ching was not yet “complete” when these slips were copied. In his translation, Mirahorian focuses attention on lines in each of the chapters that vary from readings in other editions. In addition, he shows how the sequence of chapters in this form of the text is totally unrelated to the sequence readers commonly see in the “standard” form of the text, i.e., in other translations. Here are just a few of the noteworthy features of this new Tao Te Ching: · A lucid introduction to the Guodian Laozi, offering background on the archaeological interpretation of the discovery · Line-by-line comparisons of the Guodian Laozi against the Mawangdui and Wang Bi editions · Extensive notes on each chapter describing the unique elements of the Guodian Laozi in comparison with other versions · Transcriptions for each chapter, noting both the ancient and modern form of the characters in the chapter . This groundbreaking work will lead to a reassessment of the history and significance of this well-known and critical work as well as a reevaluation of the role it played in the development of Taoism in early China”(Wu Ming)

“After the our first tranlation of Lao Tzu published in Romania in 1993, here is a landmark translation of the ancient Chinese classic famous for its profound statements about the Way of the Universe. This edition of the Tao Te Ching is based on newly discovered (1973,1993) manuscripts that are approximately five centuries older than the most commonly translated texts. Dan Mirahorian , one of the country’s foremost translators of ancient Chinese, has stripped away the distortions of previous translations, restored lost lines, reinterpreted key terms (Te/De), and created what is sure to become the definitive translation of one of the greatest and most enigmatic works of world literature. . This is an extremely valuable study of the so-called bamboo slip Lao Tzu found among the recently discovered manuscripts from the village of Kuo-tien in Hupeh Province. Aside from having major implications for the formation of the celebrated foundational text of Taoism known as the Tao Te Ching, Dan Mirahorian ´s book is a model for the presentation and analysis of archeologically recovered texts. Only an acknowledged master of the Lao Tzu who has been doing intensive research on related issues for more than two decades could have brought out the bamboo-slip version in such an authoritative and timely fashion. Dan Mirahorian now presents the first Romanian translation of the “bamboo slip Laozi.” Differing substantially
from other versions we have of the text, the Guodian Laozi provides us with clues on how and when the text came into being. As Mirahorian ´s translation shows, many chapters are missing in this form of the text, and some chapters remain incomplete. All of this seems to suggest that the Tao Te Ching was not yet “complete” when these slips were copied. In his translation, Mirahorian focuses attention on lines in each of the chapters that vary from readings in other editions. In addition, he shows how the sequence of chapters in this form of the text is totally unrelated to the sequence readers commonly see in the “standard” form of the text, i.e., in other translations. (Tao Jian Wen)

1.3.Versiuni ale textului lui Lao Tzu folosite în prezenta traducere


Pentru manuscrisele pe mătase de la Mawangdui au fost utilizate ediţiile chineze citate mai jos şi două traduceri Robert G. Henricks(1989) şi D. C. Lau(1982),care ignoră complet versiunea curentă (Wang Pi şi Heshanggong):

1.Bo Shu Lao Zi, He-lo tu-shu chu-ban-she, Taipei, 1975

2.Ma Wang Dui Bo Shu Lao Zi Shi-tan, with critical notes by Yan Ling-feng, Taipei, 1975 (This includes a photographic reproduction of the very large “presentation volume” originally published in mainland China in a very small printing.)

3.Lao-tzu Te-Tao Ching, with translation and notes by Robert G. Henricks, Ballantine, 1989. ISBN 0345347900

4.Tao Te Ching, with translation and notes by D. C. Lau, The Chinese University Press, 1982. ISBN 9622012523

5.I Ching, The Classic of Changes, The first English translation of the newly discovered second-century B.C. Mawangdui texts by Edward L. Shaughnessy, Ballantine, 1996. ISBN 0345362438

În prezenta traducere am folosit textele pe fâşii din bambus descoperite în localitatea Guodian 郭店[GD], scrise în caractere Chu, transcrise în caractere chineze standard şi publicate sub titlul Guodian Chumu zhujian (Beijing: Wenwu, 1998).Ediţia Guodian Chumu zhujian (Beijing: Wenwu, 1998).divide textul lui Lao Zi în trei părţi pe baza caligrafiei, dimensiunii ,formei fâşiilor de bambus şi a altor factori. Grupul A conţine 39 de fâşii de bambus, care corespund în întregime sau în parte următoarelor capitole din textul actual: 19, 66, 46, 30, 15, 64, 37, 63, 2, 32, 25, 5, 16, 64, 56, 57, 55, 44, 40 şi 9. Grupurile B şi C sunt mai mici, şi cuprind 18 (cap. 59, 48, 20, 13, 41, 52, 45, 54) şi respectiv 14 fâşii de bambus (cap. 17, 18, 35, 31, 64). Textul lui Lao Tzu de la Guodian nu citează nimic din capitolele 67-81.Pe lângă textele pe bambus de la Guodian[GD] 郭店, manuscrisele pe mătase de la Mawangdui, şi textele transmise ale lui Wang Bi şi Heshanggong, există şi o versiune antică” (guben) editată de un erudit Fu Yi (aprox. 600 e.n.),din epoca timpurie Tang. S-a transmis că aceasta versiune a fost recuperată dintr-un mormânt în anul 574 a aparţinut soţiei generalului Xiang Yu (d. 202 i.e.n..), din Chu ,rival al lui Liu Bang înainte ca acesta să iasă victorios şi să intemeieze dinastia Han. O redactare târzie a versiunii antice a fost realizată de Fan Yingyuan în timpul dinastiei Song. Apar unele diferenţe,dar ambele pot fi privite ca aparţinând aceleiaşi tradiţii textuale. Fragmentele din manuscrisele găsite în peşterile Dunhuang reprezintă un alt izvor important în cercetarea textului lui Lao Zi . Printre acestea sunt câteva fragmente Heshanggong (mai ales S. 477 şi S. 3926 din colecţia Stein, şi P. 2639 din colecţia Pelliot) şi importantul Xiang’er Laozi însoţit de comentarii.

Un alt manuscris Dunhuang ,care merită atenţia este fragmentul Suo Tan,aflat acum la Muzeul de Artă, al Universităţi Princeton.Acest manuscris cuprinde ultimile 31 de capitole(51-81) ale Tao Te Ching, (Dao De Jing),începând cu cap 51 din textul modern. Manuscrisul este semnat şi datat la sfârşit, purtând numele lui Suo Tan, un cunoscut erudit şi vizionar (din sec.3), care se zice că a realizat şi o copie, scrisă cu cerneală pe hârtie, în 270 e.n. După Rao Zongyi (1955), versiunea lui Suo Tan aparţine liniei lui Heshanggong de transmisie a textului lui Lao Tzu(Lao Zi ).

O lucrare mai recentă a lui William Boltz (1996) pune sub semnul întrebării datarea în sec 3 e.n. şi ajunge la concluzia ca în multe privinţe fragmentul este în acord cu « versiunea antică » a lui Fu Yi .

În timp ce versiunile manuscrise permit sezizarea diferenţelor din textul lui Lao Tzu(Lao Zi),inscripţiile în piatră furnizează o susţinere ulterioară. Peste 20 de stele din piatră ,majoritatea având originea în epocile Tang şi Song, sunt disponibile pentru analiza textelor, deşi unele se află într-o stare deteriorată (Yan 1957). Cei ce studiază azi textul lui Lao Tzu(Lao Zi )pot beneficia de mai multe cercetări (chineze şi japoneze) care utilizează un mare număr de versiuni manuscrise şi de inscripţii în piatră (în special Ma 1965, Jiang 1980, Zhu 1980, şi Shima 1973). Boltz (1993) oferă o excelentă introducere ale operei lui Lao Tzu(Lao Zi )în textele manuscrise.

Prescurtări pentru textele sursă:WB = Wang Bi ;FY = Fu Yi;HSG = Heshang Gong ; MWD = Mawangdui (plural);HY = Harvard Yencheng ; GD = Guodian fragments;


Tabelul de conversie a transcripţiilor Pinyin şi Wade-Giles

Deşi transcrierea[transliterarea; transcripţia;romanizarea] pinyin a caracterelor din limba chineză a fost declarată de către Republica Populară a Chinei ,de câţiva ani ,ca ortografie chineză obligatorie şi singura valabilă pe plan internaţional ,încă se utilizează , ca referinţă schemele uzuale de transcripţie sau de romanizare, folosite înaintea reformei chineze a ortografiei.Aceste sisteme de transliterare diferă după ţară.Pentru a rămâne în armonie cu transcripţia utilizată in majoritatea textelor anglo-saxone,conceptele şi numele chineze din această lucrare au fost ortografiate atât în pinyin cât şi după
metoda anglo- saxonă numită
Dacă într-o lucrare ,cititorul va întalni doar cuvantul ortografiat în pinyin atunci el va putea fi identificat si convertit în Wade-Giles cu ajutorul tabelulului de transcripţie expus mai jos.Este incontestabil că transcripţia pinyin reprezintă sistemul de referinţă internaţional. Comoditatea sa îl face necesar.Din aceasta cauză transcripţia pinyin a fost utilizată pe prima poziţie ,după fiecare caracter chinez, în prezenta lucrare.Transliterarea WadeGiles a fost şi este, în continuare,utilizată de către redactorii ,germani şi englezi, al dicţionarelor pentru limba chineză.Cititorul român este familiarizat cu conceptele taoiste sub denumirea rezultată din transcripţia franceză, care a fost elaborată de către l’École Française d’Extrême-Orient(EFEO).Dar transcripţia franceză EFEO ca şi toate celelalte transcripţii[inclusiv transliterarea Wade-Giles ]vor cădea în uitare şi treptat vor fi înlocuite de către transcripţia pinyin . Totuşi , pentru rarele cazuri când numele chineze sunt foarte cunoscute în România sub forma EFEO această transcripţie figurează şi ea după transcripţia pinyin a caracterului chinez. S-a procedat în mod similar pentru numele cunoscute, care nu se raportează la nici un sistem de transliterare. Formele latinizate(precum: Confucius;Mencius; taoism) sunt în această situaţie şi beneficiază de propria lor intrare,cu trimiteri la formele de transliterare pinyin şi Wade-Giles corespunzătoare.



1.2.Dificultati de traducere şi mod de utilizare

A interpreta un text antic,în special textul lui LaoTzu[Lao Zi],este întotdeauna un lucru dificil şi aceasta pentru mai multe motive.Mai întâi cele mai evidente. Deşi limba chineză este singura limbă de pe Terra care păstrează aceleaşi caractere, ca în urmă cu 2000 de ani [simplificate în ultimele decenii] chinezii înşişi nu înţeleg acest text ,fiindcă semnificaţia multor ideograme s-a modificat,fiind astăzi alta.În al doilea rând,contemporanii noştri nu au acces la semnificaţia mesajului transmis de Lao Tzu prin acest text ,decât prin intermediul traducătorilor, care au redactat dicţionarele.Cum putem ,în acest caz, să aflăm semnificaţia exactă a acestui text? După cum descoperim şi în capitolul 47 Lao Tzu se referă la universul în care trăim ca la un univers holografic,care este invariant cu scala la care este cercetat:în fiecare particică a sa descoperim întregul;în noi înşine «acum şi aici» descoperim toate legile universului: “fără să treci pragul uşii, se poate cunoaşte întreg universul; fără să priveşti pe fereastră se poate descoperi Calea Cerului”.“Without going out-of-doors, one can know all he needs to know. Without even looking out of his window, one can grasp the nature of everything.”Buddha spunea: “Adevarul e adevarat in toate locurile si timpurile si poate fi utilizat de toti oamenii.Nu e surprinzator atunci ca, oamenii intelepti din diferite epoci si locuri au descoperit aceleasi adevaruri despre viata spirituala”. Buddha said: “Truth is true in all places and times and applies to all people. It isn’t surprising then, that wise people in different times and places made the same discoveries about spiritual life”.

Vedeti mai
jos corespondente intre mesajul lui Lao Tzu si cel al lui Iisus(The Tao and the Bible) al lui Patanjali si al lui Buddha

Pentru un om care a realizat ca « universul este holografic,acelasi si complet in fiecare parte a sa » este oare posibil să nege o afirmaţie ,cu o altă afirmaţie situată în acelaşi capitol ori din alt capitol.[vedeti notele referitoare la tăcere şi bu yan din capitolul 2].O astfel de lucrare care si-ar nega afirmatiile expuse intr-un loc şi-ar pierde unitatea şi nici n-ar respecta principiul holografic care ne permite “să descoperim în fiecare parte întregul ” .În concluzie dacă textul a fost voluntar ori involuntar alterat el poate fi refăcut,eliminând contradicţiile. Pentru a corecta alterările programului genetic ,natura vie se bazează pe acelaşi principiu holografic ; alterările în programul genetic al unor celule,care survin în urma copierii repetate, sunt eliminate de către celelalte celule ca incompatibile; fiindcă şi celelalte celule conţin programul de referinţă(în fiecare celulă vie găsim întreaga informaţie necesară reconstituirii unei copii a întregului organism pluricelular-acest lucru face posibilă clonarea-reproducerea intregului organism din oricare celula a sa) .Textul lui Lao Tzu a fost modificat involuntar ,prin copiere greşită, ori cel mai sigur, voluntar,prin alterare si cenzurare,pentru că în toate perioadele in care taoismul a fost fie interzis supuşilor,pe faţă sau în ascuns ,fie modificat fiindca prin autoritatea sa,el a ramas un vector de manipulare si influentare imposibil de neglijat de catre guvernanti.Multe din citatele celebre din Lao Tzu pun pe piata deformari ale mesajului initial.De pilda celebrul citat « Cel ce stie nu vorbeste ;Cel ce vorbeste nu stie » apartine celor ce venereaza clasificarea,secretizarea si compartimentarea etansa a societatii in vederea monopolizarii informatiilor si a puterii.Aceasta traducere care sustine inchiderea si a izolarea necesare Uniunii Mistice (la care se refera Lao Tzu in cap.56) a devenit deviza celor care au promovat inchiderea,izolarea si inghetarea oricarui progres in China.Acesta politica a intarziat accesul poporului chinez la democratie si la tehnologiile moderne desi existau celelalte premise(degeaba chinezii au descoperit motorul cu aburi,hartia, multe altele daca aceste descoperiri au fost secretizate,izolate).

Dinastiile confucianiste au interzis taoismul fiindcă erau mult mai interesate de instituirea ascultării, supunerii şi a conformismului în ierarhia socială şi familială a celor guvernaţi, decât de eliberarea (mântuirea) individuală sau de spargerea tiparelor de identificare,la care se referă Lao Tzu,Socrate ori Iisus. La rândul lor, dinastiile taoiste nu aveau nici o dorinţa să piardă monopolul puterii ,aşa că au instituit dubla morală,dubla instrucţie(programarea sau condiţionarea diferită a liderilor, faţă de cei ce urmau să-i servească întreaga viaţă ca slujitori,militari,etc..) care s-a perpetuat până azi,din motive lesne de înţeles. Aceleaşi nevoi ori întrebări, nasc soluţii ori răspunsuri similare.Cum poate fi obţinută ,păstrată şi monopolizată puterea pentru a nu trece în mana altora?Pentru ca secretul armelor nucleare să nu se răspandească,sau să nu disemineze, s-a folosit principiul compartimentării proceselor de producţie şi de asamblare:fiecare producător face ,separat de ceilalţi, doar o singură piesă componentă, care este ulterior asamblată în alt loc,alături de altele,produse separat.În final se ajunge la un număr foarte mic de oameni, care ştiu să realizeze întreg ansamblul.Din acest ansamblu lipseşte intotdeauna o componentă cheie produsă compartimentat în altă parte ,aflată în mâna celor care deţin puterea reală de a folosi arma.În mod similar «cunoaşterea care conferă puterea» a fost compartimentată,ascunsă în sertare etichetate diferit.Medicina Tradiţională Chineză [MTC] este numele unui sertar din care s-au scos punctele de acupunctură şi drogurile care induc extinderea razei de perceptie si de actiune-si conduc la accesul la puteri supranaturale[levitaţie;invulnerabilitate,vedere prin obstacole,etc]. Un alt sertar este controlul energiei vitale[Qi Gong] care permite actiunea(terapeutica;militara) de la distanta (fara contact material) pe care îl regăsim fragmentat în diferite tradiţii: medicale,shamaniste, de arte marţiale[tai qi quan; kung fu;wudan ba gua]. Astrologia,numerologia chineză[yi jing],artele divinatorii, arta administrării spaţiului,timpului în armonie cu cele cinci elemente [feng-shui], alimentaţia taoistă,alchimia internă[nei dan]şi externă[wei dan] sunt alte câteva etichete puse pe sertare în care găsim o parte din cunoaşterea taoistă initială.

Dar asta nu este totul:stilul lui Lao Tzu era concis şi ascuns[ermetic]chiar pentru contemporanii săi.Dacă ar fi spus pe faţă că se referă la spargerea programului de condiţionare ,pentru a accede la «a doua naştere» la eliberare şi la trezire,cartea ar fi fost distrusă,arsă sau interzisă de mult.Avem un autor care semnifică mult spunând puţin.Aceasta înseamnă că trebuie sa ne dublăm prudenţa,şi că ,pentru a înţelege un pasaj dintr-un aumit capitol,trebuie în teorie şi în practică să le fi citit pe toate celelalte capitole.Şi mai este ceva mult mai grav:conceptele puse în joc într-o anumită epocă şi într-o anumită civilizaţie sunt adesea foarte diferite de conceptele noastre actuale.Textul antic pe care îl citim are atunci un interes dublu:(1)el ne comunică ceva pe care putem să-l citim ca atare,ca orice text modern;(2)el ne învaţă ceva depre background-ul[tabloul;fundalul]ideologic sau metafizic al autorului sau al unei epocii,care este foarte diferit de al nostru.Un text modern, simplificat la o traducere convergentă,oricare ar fi calităţile sale [o varianta poetică ar impune restricţii suplimentare]nu ne va oferi decât (1)fiindcă pentru a ne oferi(2)ar trebui să vină de la civilizaţia extraterestră superevoluată, care a furnizat discipolilor de pe Terra cursuri de depanare al maşinii uman
e folosind punctele de acupunctură ori de la omul care a realizat deja ceea ce se afirmă. Azi descoperim ,cu ajutorul instrumentelor electronice ori a izotopilor injectaţi,in punctele terminale ale meridianelor energetice,ca punctele de control cutanat folosite în acupunctură există.Ultimile cercetări evidenţiază că aceste puncte de control cutanat aparţin unui sistem holografic de control energetic şi informaţional,iar acest sistem de control are căi proprii,meridianele de acupunctură[jing luo]. Meridianele de acupunctură erau utilizate şi în alte tradiţii: tradiţia tibetană şi hindusă le cunoaşte sub numele de nadis[ canale;vase].
Viteza de control a diferitelor procese fiziologice exercitată de către acest sistem de control holografic este intermediară,faţă de controlul rapid,exercitat de către sistemul nervos şi faţă de controlul lent, exercitat de către sistemul hormonal.Toate acestea pentru a spune că este hazardat să interpretăm un extras dat într-un mod atât de simplist.
De pildă, Lao Tzu, sau mai degrabă traducerea sa –zice:«un anumit material pe care el[poporul]nu trebuie să-l utilizeze»,sau«eu l-aş împiedica să se servească de acest material». Înseamnă aceasta că el vrea sa spună« să nu facă război»?

Nimic nu este mai puţin sigur ,fiindcă restul textului Tao Te Ching ne arată că atunci când Lao Tzu vrea să ne zică ceva simplu,el o spune fără perifrază.De ce atunci în loc să îndemne la pace Lao Tzu zice: «nu utiliza» sau«nu te servi»?Răspunsul este că «nu(negatia)+verbul»este o aluzie la «non-acţiune»,la « Wu-Wei ».Ceea ce vizează el nu este pacea ,asa cum s-ar părea[sau cum am gândi] după o lectură izolată a acestui pasaj.[capitol].O lectură totală confirmă această bănuială: în special capitolele 57,68 şi 69, dezvăluie ceea ce înţelege Lao Tzu prin «non-acţiune». În materie de război şi de guvernare a unui stat: «Nu îndrăznesc să iau iniţiativa;îmi place mai mult să aştept.Nu îndrăznesc să înaintez cu un deget;prefer să dau înapoi cu un picior».Este vorba de un principiu bine cunoscut în artele marţiale,care este acela de a te păstra în stare de repaus,ceea ce poate avea ca efect agasarea adversarului,sau determinarea acestuia să se arunce grăbit într-o mişcare greşită. Wu-Wei este şi mai bine descris prin atitudinea unei femele(ea se lasă învinsă ,dar ea este aceea care triumfă, în final, asupra masculului) sau prin acţiunea apei(apa este moale şi slabă în timp ce roca este dură,tare şi puternică,şi totuşi apa este aceea care uzează şi înfrânge roca;cap.78).În artele marţiale[aikido] triumfă întotdeauna cel care utilizează Wu-Wei şi aceasta se petrece atunci când este folosită chiar forţa adversarului pentru a-l învinge.Aceasta presupune eliminarea atacului preventiv[atacul nu este cea mai bună apărare, ci o risipă de resurse şi este util doar pentru cel care are în faţă un adversar neatent –nu poţi surprinde un adversar cu adevărat atent ].Într-o demonstraţie de arte marţiale ,desfaşurată la Paris în 1983, a rămas celebru faptul că cei doi maeştri care se confruntau s-au privit în ochi timp de două ore, fară să se desfăşoare nici un atac.Întrebaţi ,după aceea ,de ce nu a avut loc lupta, la care publicul se aştepta,fiecare din ei a spus că «nu a găsit un moment în care mintea adversarului să nu fi fost vidă».În nici o clipă mintea nu a fost ocupată cu un atac şi a rămas într-o stare de atenţie invulnerabilă.În buddhismul japonez se foloseşte termenul shikantaza(a fi aşezat –za-fără nimic-shikan– să întâlneşti-ta)pentru a desemna starea caracterizată de o atenţie susţinută,vie şi eliberată de orice gânduri,care nu se fixează de nici un obiect şi nu se ataşează de nici un conţinut-aceasta constituie forma cea mai pură şi mai elevată a zazen].

As a thread connecting human endeavors over thousands of years, there appears no proper historical context for interpretation of the work. Moreover, ancient Chinese will not properly translate into modern Chinese as the meanings of its thousands of pictograms have evolved, undocumented, over millenia. Translation into English presents further problems as English and Chinese involve very different maps of human understanding. Likewise, its sheer antiquity has burdened the work with plentiful copying errors, editorial remarks, revisions and misunderstandings. Worst of all, most folk that quote Lao Tzu are selling something different from the original message.For instance the well known quotation from Lao Tzu(chapter 56) is false: “He who knows, does not speak. He who speaks, does not know.”(see below the real translation)

Corespondente intre mesajul lui Lao Tzu si cel al lui Iisus-The Tao and the Bible

As people study the Tao Te Ching(By the way: The Tao is the world’s most translated book, after the Bible) they are often struck by the many similarities to the New Testament. In fact, some Taoists feel that Taoism spread to Israel in Jesus’ time, influencing Christ. There are many historical and theological reasons why that is extremely unlikely. Instead, I believe the similarities are due to the universal nature of wisdom. As the Buddha said: Truth is true in all places and times and applies to all people. It isn’t surprising then, that wise people in different times and places made the same observations about life. This section of the New Testament discusses the relationship between God and those who have never directly been exposed to Jesus’ teachings:

Romans 1:20,22,23,25

For since the creation of the world God’s invisible qualities–his eternal power and divine nature–have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that men are without excuse. . .
. . Although they claimed to be wise, they became fools and exchanged the glory of the immortal God for images made to look like mortal man and birds and animals and reptiles. . .

They exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served created things rather than the Creator–who is forever praised. Amen.

Here are some other comparisons from the Bible and the Tao:


Those who live by the sword will die by the sword.

Tao – Chapter 74
People who try to take the executioner’s place are like people that try to take the Master Carpenter’s place.If you use the Master’s tools, you just cut your own hands.

Bible – Mathew 5:5

Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth.

Tao – Chapter 76

The soft and yielding (people) will prevail.

Bible – Proverbs 10:19
The more you talk, the more you are likely to sin.
If you are wise, you will keep quiet.

Tao – Chapter 5

The mouth, on the other hand, becomes exhausted if you talk too much.

Better to keep your thoughts inside you.