THE WAY TO INNER HEAVEN AND POWER

Lao Tzu [Lao zi,Lao Tseu,Lao Tse,Lao Tze, Lao Tzi] in limba romana si engleza de Dan Mirahorian

老子 道德經 Lao Tzu ,Tao Te Ching1, MIRAHORIAN

Tao Te Ching[Dao De Jing]

Lao Tzu[Lao Zi]
CARTEA CĂİİ SPRE CER Şİ PUTERE
老子 道德經 LAO TZU OREGON UNIV 55


TEXT ÎN L.CHINEZĂ,TRANSLİTERARE ÎN PİNYİN,DICŢIONAR CHINEZ-ROMÂN AL TUTUROR IDEOGRAMELOR UTILIZATE ÎN TAO TE CHING, TRADUCERE ÎN L.ROMÂNĂ,COMENTARII ,NOTE ŞI ÎNREGISTRARE PE CD AUDIO A LECTURII TUTUROR CAPITOLELOR DIN TAO TE CHING DE:

DAN MIRAHORIAN

CUPRİNS

1.İntroducere;
1.1.İmportanţa acestui text ;

1.2.Punere în gardă şi mod de utilizare ;

1.3.Versiuni ale textului lui Lao Tzu folosite în prezenta traducere

2.NOTĂ PRİVİND TRANSCRİPŢİA Şİ PRONUNŢAREA CARACTERELOR DİN LİMBA CHİNEZĂ;

3.SEMNİFİCAŢİA CARACTERELOR DİN TİTLU;

4.MODUL DE PREZENTARE UTİLİZAT ÎN DİCŢİONARUL CHİNEZ-ROMÂN AL TERMENİLOR DİN TAO TE CHİNG;

5. TEXT ÎN L.CHİNEZĂ,TRANSLİTERAT [ÎN PİNYİN,WADE-GILES Şi EFEO], TRADUCERE ÎN L.ROMÂNĂ,COMENTARİİ ,NOTE ,

6.DICŢİONAR CHİNEZ-ROMÂN AL İDEOGRAMELOR UTİLİZATE ÎN DAO DE JİNG (TAO TE CHİNG);ESTE PREZENTATĂ LISTA TUTUROR CARACTERELOR DİN DAO DE JING[TAO TE CHING] ÎNSOŢİTĂ DE TRANSCRİPŢİE Şİ SEMNİFICAŢİE;

7.CD AUDİO PENTRU TOATE CAPİTOLELE ; [CİTİTORİİ POT SOLİCİTA ÎNREGİSTRAREA AUDİO PE CD SAU PE BANDĂ MAGNETİCĂ A TUTUROR CAPİTOLELOR DİN TAO TE CHİNG ÎN LECTURA A TREİ MAEŞTRİ ÎN QİGONG LA ADRESA :OP 77-CP 58, BUCUREŞTİ sau e-mail: danmirahorian@yahoo.com].

1.İNTRODUCERE

1.1. İmportanta acestui text

După Biblie,cartea lui Lao Tzu[în pinyin :Lao Zi](sec.VI î.e.n.) este cea mai publicată în lume .În ceea ce priveşte numărul variantelor de traducere şi al ediţiilor apărute textul atribuit lui Lao Tzu se află pe primul loc.

Este vorba despre :«Cartea despre Calea spre Cer şi Putere» (în romanizare pinyin : Dào Dé Jīng ; în transliterare anglo-saxonă Wade-Giles : Tao Te Ching ,care este e obicei titlul ediţiilor în l.engleză ale acestei cărţi :; în pre-Wade-Giles, Tao Teh Ching ; în transcripţia francofonă EFEO :Tao Tö King(Tao Te King)

Valoarea acestui text a fost recunoscută în 1993 când cu ocazia descoperirii a textului fundamental al taoismului printre manuscrisele pe fâşii din bambus, într-un mormânt din sec.III-IV î.e.n. situat în localitatea Guodian[GD] 郭店,în presa din întreaga lume a fost comparat acest eveniment cu impactul trezit de descoperirea «Manuscriselor de la Marea Moartă»

İmportanţa descoperirii celei mai vechi variante a textului fundamental al taoismului,atribuit lui Lao Tzu,[în pinyin:Lao Zi](sec.VI î.e.n.), printre manuscrisele pe fâşii din bambus ,găsite în 1993 într-un mormânt din sec.III-IV î.e.n. situat în localitatea Guodian[GD] 郭店, a fost recunoscută în presa din întreaga lume, prin compararea acestui eveniment cu descoperirea «Manuscriselor de la Marea Moartă».

The importance of Lao tzu/Importanţa operei lui Lao Tzu

The Tao Te Ching, “the book of flow and harmony”, is the fundamental text of Taoism. Its origins lost in the revolutions of Chinese history, it is known to pre-date the invention of paper. In fact its form exhibits many of the features of an oral tradition, suggesting it may pre-date writing as well. The unknown author of the Tao Te Ching is popularly known as Lao Tzu, which is both “the old philosopher” and “the old philosophy”. Hence Lao Tzu(Lao Tse) is also a title for the book.Many myths, religions, cults, yogas, and martial disciplines have sprung up around Lao Tzu(Lao Tse). The poem’s parallels with the Bhagavad Gita, its implicit opposition to Confucian thought, its relationship with Chuang Tzu and Sun Tzu, and its distinction from the discipline of Zen are subjects of some controversy.

Joseph Needham in his great Science and Civilization in China does so — to interpret the Tao Te Ching as a treatise of elementary primitive scientific empiricism; certainly it is that. Over and over it says, “learn the way of nature”; “do not try to overcome the forces of nature but use them.” On the other hand, Fr. Leo Weiger, S.J., called the Tao Te Ching a restatement of the philosophy of the Upanishads in Chinese terms. Buddhists, especially Zen Buddhists in Japan and America, have understood and translated the book as a pure statement of Zen doctrine. Even more remarkable, contemporary Chinese, and not all of them Marxists, have interpreted it as an attack on private property and feudal oppression, and as propaganda for communist anarchism. Others have interpreted it as a cryptic work of erotic mysticism and yoga exercises. It is all of these things and more, and not just because of the ambiguity of the ideograms in a highly compressed classical Chinese text; it really is many things to many men — like the Tao itself.

The influence of the Laozi on Chinese culture is both deep and far-reaching. One indication of its enduring appeal and hermeneutical openness is the large number of commentaries devoted to it throughout Chinese history — some seven hundred, according to one count (W. T. Chan 1963, 77). The Laozi has inspired an intellectual movement known as xuanxue, “Learning of the Mysterious (Dao)” — or “Neo-Daoism,” as some scholars prefer, emphasizing its roots in classical Daoism — that dominated the Chinese elite or high culture from the third to the sixth century C.E. Consequently, the Laozi played a significant role in informing not only philosophic thought but also the development of literature, calligraphy, painting, music, and other cultural traditions.

Imperial patronage enhanced the prestige of the Laozi and enlarged its scope of influence. In 731 C.E., the emperor Xuanzong decreed that all officials should keep a copy of the Daodejing at home and placed the classic on the list of texts to be examined for the civil service examinations. In religious Daoism, recitation of the Daodejing is a prescribed devotional practice and figures centrally in ritual performance. The Daodejing has been set to music from an early time. The term “Laozi learning” (Laoxue) has come to designate an important field of study; a recent effort that sketches the major landmarks in this development is Zhongguo Laoxue shi (A History of Laozi Learning in China) (Xiong Tieji, et al. 1995).

The influence of the Laozi extends beyond China, as Daoism reaches across Asia and in the modern period, the Western world. In Hong Kong, Taiwan, and among the Chinese in Southeast Asia, Daoism is a living tradition. Daoist beliefs and practices have contributed also to the formation of Korean and Japanese culture, although here the process of cultural transmission, assimilation, and transformation is highly complex, especially given the close interaction among Daoism, Buddhism, and indigenous traditions such as Shintō (see Fukui, et al. 1983, vol. 3). During the seventh century, the Laozi was translated into Sanskrit; in the eighteenth century a Latin translation was brought to England, after which there has been a steady supply of translations into Western languages, yielding a handsome harvest of some 250 to date (LaFargue and Pas 1998, 277).

Laozi is an “axial” philosopher whose insight helps shape the course of human development, according to Karl Jaspers (1974). Memorable phrases from the Laozi such as “governing a large country is like cooking a small fish” (ch. 60) have found their way into Western political rhetoric. At the popular level, several comic versions of the Laozi reach out to a younger and wider readership (e.g., Tsai Chih Chung, et al. 1995). Some may have come to learn about the Laozi through such best-selling works as The Tao of Physics (Capra 1975) or The Tao of Pooh (Hoff 1982); and there is also A Taoist Cookbook (Saso 1994), which comes with “meditations” from the Daodejing. From nature lovers to management gurus, a growing audience is discovering that the Laozi has something to offer to them. The reception of the Laozi in modern Asia and the West falls outside the scope of this article; nevertheless, it is important to note that the Laozi should be regarded not only as a work of early Chinese philosophy but also in a larger context as a classic of world literature with keen contemporary relevance.

Chinese thinkers who had been influenced by Lao Tzu directly or indirectly are:

Confucius( 552-479 B.C.)—He had visited Lao Tzu three times to inquire about Li(propriety ritual).

C Chuang Tzu(350-265? B.C.)–He worshipped Lao Tzu and is the best known and loved Taoist thinker.

S Sun Tzu(existed in the sixth century B.C.)–The author of the celebrated military strategy book Sun Tzu. He was said to be personally taught by Lao Tzu; their principles on military strategy are in agreement.

H Han Fei Tzu(?-233 B.B.)–An influencial thinker on Legalism(the policy of stric
t adherence to law and order, it advocates severe punishment as a means to sustain peace and order). However, he has written two books interpreting and commenting on Lao Tzu’s book named Lao Tzu
(known as Tao Te Ching later).

Z Zen(Ch’an) BuddhistsThis branch of Buddhism was originated in China. Initially Chinese Buddhist monks derived their theory about meditation from Lao Tzu’s description of it.

Western philosophers who had been deeply impressed by Lao Tzu’s words are:

F FrederickNietzsche-He said Lao Tzu’s book was full with creative ideas, as inexhaustible as water in a well.

Bertrand RussellHe was deeply touched by Lao Tzu’s words about true nobility “[A sage] would help [all creatures] to relish their lives without being possessive. [He] would carry out good deeds withour asserting his achievement.”(2.IV)

K Karl R. Popper(following books are dedicated to the memory of him)He had been interesting in Lao Tzu ever since he was twenty-six. Please go toThe Great Philosopher Karl Popper & Lao Tzu References.

P Paul Carus-He said Lao Tzu was a great philosopher and one of the greatest human beings who had ever trodden earth.

Other Westerners who were impressed by Lao Tzu

S Samuel Johnson(19th century American missionary and theologian in China)–He wrote very perceptive comments on Lao Tzu’s original philosophy:he was among the few who has been touched by Lao Tzu’s deep spiritual and religious sentiments.

S Stainislas Julien(sinologist)–He said Lao Tzu was a great man who had been considerably misunderstood. His translation was perhaps the best one in the 19th Century.

L Leo Toystoy(humanitarianist & novelist)–He compared the immensity of Lao Tzu to Jesus(so did above mentioned Samuel Johnson), and compared the greatness of his only book Tao Te Ching to that of the Holy Bible.

K Karl Jung(psychologist)

N Niels Bohr(quantum physicist)

E Eugene O’Neil(playwright)–He claimed to be an admirer of Lao Tzu’s principles an named his residence after it.

Joseph Needham((microbiologist & sinologist)–He saidDao Teh Ching, which may be regarded as without exception the most prfound and beautiful work in the Chinese language”(Sicence and Civilization in China)

Many Christian priests and missionaries who had once stationed in China–Many of them were amazed to find so many parallel passages between Lao Tzu(aka Tao Te Ching) and The New Testament.

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